August 14, 2022

All about compulsory vaccines in children

Mandatory vaccines
The diphtheria : obligatory in France since 1938
Dipheteria is a contagious and very serious bacterial disease that is spread through saliva or through contact with open wounds. This disease particularly affects the heart and the nervous system. Its mortality rate represented 50% of cases but thanks to vaccination, this infection is today very rare.

Tetanus: compulsory in France since 1952
Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease that is not contagious. It is caused by a bacteria in the soil and garbage that enters the body through a poorly disinfected wound and attaches to the spinal cord. Tetanus can also be transmitted from mother to motherchild via the umbilical cord.

Poliomyelitis: obligatory in France since 1964
Poliomyelitis is a contagious disease that is transmitted through food or water containing feces. Once the virus enters the body, it multiplies in the intestines and invades the nervous system can cause total paralysis (legs in general). Since 1988, the number of cases in the world has decreased by 99%, and so far, only Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistant remain strongly affected by tetanus.

When should one vaccinate a child against diphtheria, tetanus and polio?
The diphtheria, tetanus and polio vaccine is a combination vaccine. That is to say that it allows to administer in a single injection all the necessary substances against several diseases. This vaccine is called DTCPH. In addition to these three diseases, your child will also be protected against whooping cough, haemophilus influenza type B and hepatitis B. The combined vaccine helps improve the comfort of your child by inflicting fewer injections. It also reduces parents' apprehension about certain vaccines.

This vaccine should be administered in 4 doses at the following ages: 2 months, 3 months and 4 months, then between 16 and 18 months. Between 5 and 7 years old, the first reminder and then a second reminder between 14 and 15 years old. The following will be done every 10 years (except for poliomyelitis, which requires a single booster between 5 and 7 years).

Yellow fever: mandatory for all people residing in Guyana (or tourists)
Yellow fever is caused by the Amaril virus present in the salivary glands of the mosquito, an insect vector of the disease in humans. After a few days of incubation, the virus attacks the liver, spleen and kidneys. In at-risk populations, the vaccine is mandatory for anyone over the age of one year.

Recommended vaccines
BCG: (Bacille Calmette and Guérin) is the vaccine to protect against tuberculosis. Since July 2007, the vaccine is no longer mandatory in France. The obligation was lifted in favor of children the most exploded tuberculosis, ie born in an area with high endemic tuberculosis: Ile de France, French Guiana and Mayotte or one of whose parents is native to the following areas: Africa, Asia, South America and central ...

When should you have your child vaccinated against TB?
In at-risk populations, BCG should be given as soon as birth, during the first month of life. Vaccines against contagious diseases such as whooping cough, rubella, measles, mumps and chickenpox are not mandatory in France but they are highly recommended. Pertussis is currently on the increase and can be very serious in newborns. The vaccine is usually combined with diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Measles, mumps and rubella are benign diseases but can lead to more or less serious complications. The MMR (Measles-Mumps-Rubella) vaccine is given in two doses. The first dose of vaccine is recommended at 12 months and the second dose between 13 and 24 months.

Haemophilus influenza b, pneumococcal and meningococcal c infections can cause serious sequelae inchild. The vaccine against haemophilus influenza b, responsible for infections such as meningitis and epiglottitis, is practiced from the second month of life at the same time as diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis vaccine. It is useless in children over 5 years old. Pneumococcus, the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, is still dangerous in children less than two years old. It is recommended to vaccinatechild from the age of 2 months, then to 3 and 4 months. The booster dose is recommended between 12 and 15 months to ensure long-term protection.

The vaccine against meningococcal meningitis is recommended in case of epidemic or when traveling in certain countries.

Human papillomavirus infections affect young girls. The vaccine has been available since 2007 and helps fight against cervical cancer. It is recommended for all girls at the age of 14, where before the beginning of sex life.

Hepatitis B and A
Hepatitis B is a serious disease that can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer. The vaccine has been around since 1982 and guarantees effective protection against this viral infection. Since 1991, the vaccine has been highly recommended for all childrenhowever, it is mandatory in France only for groups at risk: health professionals. The vaccine should be administered at 2 months of age, a second injection at 4 months and then a last at 16-18 months. It is usually offered by your doctor at the same time as the compulsory vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Hepatitis A is a disease most often benign for children. Vaccination against this disease is recommended in France in at-risk populations: 2 doses between the age of 1 year and 15 years.

The Journey of Your Child’s Vaccine (August 2022)